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Abubuwan da ya kamata a sani game da ciwon hawan jini

  • Duk wata cuta da dan adam kan iya kamuwa da ita, kamar nauyi take ga mai dauke da ita. Wannan nauyi kuwa kan zamewa mai dauke da ita kamar kaya da ba yadda za a yi da ita. A wannan zamani da muke ciki kowa ka gani yana cikin yanayi ne na sauri da kuma kokarin cimma wani abu a rayuwa. Wannan gwagwarmayar da kowa ke ciki ta sa rayuwa cikin wani yanayi na matsi da kuma kunci wanda ya sanya mutane ba sa iya zama su ci abinci mai kyau da kara lafiya, sai dai junk food da makamantansu. Wadannan yanayi duk sun tattaru sun haifar da cututtuka iri daban-daban, daya daga cikinsu da ya buwayi mutane shine ciwon hawa jini, wato hypertension ko blood pressure a Turance. A yau, cikin wannan Makala, zan kawo muku bayani game da abinda ya shafi ciwon hawan jini, kamar abubuwan da ya kamata ku sani wanda ke jawo cutar, da hanyoyin rigakafin kamuwa da ita da kuma magance ta in har kaddara ta sa an tsinci kai cikin ta.

    Mene ne ciwon hawan jini (hypertension)?

    Ciwon hauhawar jini ko kuma hawar jini wani ciwo ne da yake samuwa sabili da hawan da jinin mutum yake yi fiye da kima (persistent rise in blood pressure). Abin da ake dauka normal wajen gwajin jinin mutum shine idan na’uran kwajin hawan jinin ya nuna 120/80 mmHg ko kasa da haka na systolic da diastolic (the normal values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure are 120/80 mmHg). Amma idan wanna ma’unin ya daura akan haka kuwa, to za a iya cewa akwai hawan jini (blood pressure). A wannan yanayi mutum na iya shiga hadarin kamuwa da cututtuka kamar haemorrhage (fitan jini daga hanyan shi zuwa wani hanyar na daban), da myocardial infarction, da stroke (shanyewar gabobi), da kidney failure (matsalar koda), da kuma vision loss (matsala na rashin gani).

    Abubuwan dake canzawa a lokacin kamuwa da cutan hawan jini (pathophysiology)

    Jijiyoyi, wato makwarara ko kuma hanyoyin da jinni ke bi (blood vessels) su kan kankance ko toshewa a saboda wasu dalilai da suma wasu cututtukan ne ke kawo su. Da zarar jijiyoyin sun matse sai yanayin ya haifar da haurawar jini, wato increase in blood pressure. Wannan haurawa na jini din yakan karawa zuciya dawainiya. Sabili da wannan dawainiya da zuciya ke yi sai jijiyoyin zuciyar su rika samun rauni akai-akai har a karshe sai a samu matsalar ciwon zuciya, wato cardiac failure a Turance. Sannan kuma wannan tsukewar blood vessels din kan haifar da abinda ake cewa thromboembolism da ke haifar da haemorrhage da kuma shanyewar gabobin jiki wato strokes. A fadin masana, matsalar ciwon goda (kidney failure) da ke samuwa yayin ciwon hypertension, na faruwa ne a dalilin rashin daidaiton ruwa da kuma sinadarin ions a cikin jini. Sannan kuma abin nan da ake cewa Renin-angiotensin mechanism ba ya aiki yadda ya kamata har hakan ya haifar da kidney failure. Sannan kuma ana sakin immune system mediators masu yawan gaske wadda hakan kan ingiza samuwar ciwon hauhawan jinni (hypertension) tare da TMF 1, Interleukin 1, 6 and 8.

    Alamu ko abubuwan da ke nuni ga samuwar cutar hawan jini (symptoms of hypertension)

    Duk da cewa alamun hawan jini sun danganta ne daga mutum zuwa mutum, to amma akwai wasu alamu da sukan samu  ga kowa da kowa. Wasu daga cikin alamun da kowa kan samu su ne:

    Manyan alamun sun hada da; vertigo, da yawan suma (fainting episodes), da lightheadedness, da yawan canjin yanayi (mood swings), da ciwon kai, da tinnitus da kuma yawan faduwar gaba (palpitations).

    Sannan abinnan da ake cewa secondary hypertension na faruwa ne sabili da rashin jituwa da sinadarin glucose (glucose intolerance), ko hyperthyroidism (wani yanayi ne dake haifar da matsala a makogwaro), ko kuma sabida Cushing’s syndrome. Wasu alamomin sun hada da kumburin hannaye da kafafu (puffiness of hands and feet), kumburin fuska (swelling of the face), da bugun zuciya (palpitaion), da kuma yawan hada zufa (excessive sweating) da suransu.

    Mai karatu na iya karanta: Abubuwan ya kamata mutane su sani game da ciwon basir (piles or hemorrhoids)

    Mata masu juna biyu da ke kamuwa da ciwon hawan jini suna da yawan gaske - ya kai kamar kashi takwas zuwa kashi goma cikin dari (8-10%). Ana kiran wannan hawan jinin na masu ciki da suna gestational hypertension. Matan su kan fuskanci yawan canjin yanayi (mood swings), da high blood pressure, da yawan amai, sannan kuma da ciwon kai. Sannan kuma ciwon hawan jinin bayan haihuwa (postnatal hypertension) yanzu ya yawaita ga mata a wannan zamanin da muke ciki kuma duk alamominsu iri daya ne da na mai ciki.

    Abubuwan dake haifar da ciwon hawan jini (Causes of hypertension)

    Yanayin rayuwar mutum da dabi’un shi na taka rawa na musamman wajen kamuwa ko rashin kamuwa da cutar hawan jini. Misali idan mutum na da dabi’u irin na shan taba, ko shan giya, ko kuma yawan cin gishiri a cikin abinci, to yana cikin hadarin kamuwa da wannan cutar.

    Yawancin primary hypertension na samuwa ne saboda genetic disturbances. Bayan an girma, akan kamu da shi ne saboda yanayin nan da ake kira da suna metabolic syndrome, da rashin shan nonon uwa (lack of breastfeeding) a lokacin yaranta da kuma shan taba na uwa wato maternal smoking a Turance.

    Sannan secondary hypertension na faruwa ne saboda yanayin nan da ake kira da Cushing’s syndrome, da kuma yanayin da ake kira da hyperthyroidism, da Cohn’s disease, da acromegaly, da kiba (obesity), sannan da pheochromocytoma. Irin dabi’an cin abincin mutum da kuma shan giya suna daga cikin muhimman dalilai da ke haddasa kamuwa da cutan hawan jini kamar yadda muka fada a baya. Haka zalika ta’ammuli da miyagun kwayoyi shima yana haddasa ciwon hawan jinni.

    Yadda za a gano ko mutum na fama da ciwon hawan jini (Diagnosis)

    Akwai gwaje-gwaje da dama da ake yi don gano shin ko mutum na fama da cutar hawan jini. Daya daga cikinsu shine duba blood pressure na dan lokaci mai tsayi. Sannan kuma ana gwajin HDL da LDL na lipid contents (yawan kitse) a jini. Haka zalika kuma akan sa marasa lafiya su yi gwaji na serum electrolyte balance. Sannan ana sawa ayi wasu tesatesai (tests) don gano ko mutum na dauke da cutar, gwaji kamar na ECG, da Chest radiography da kuma azumin gano glucose level suna daga cikin irin gwaje-gwajen da ake yi.

    Sannan za a iya duba: Yadda za a cire sinadarai masu guba da ake samu a cikin alluran rigakafi

    Yadda ake jinyar hawan jini

    Kula da yadda mutum ke tafi da rayuwarsa yana da mutukar muhimmanci wajen jinyar ciwon hawan jini; irin canje-canje da ya kamata mutum ya yi sun hada da:

    1. Cin abinci mara gishiri/ko abinci mai gishiri dan kadan ainun. Wannan irin abinci na taimakawa wajen daidaita electrolyte a jiki sannan zai yi controlling blood pressure.
    2. Rabuwa da shan giya ga mai shan giyar. Shan giya na da matukar hadari ga lafiyar mai ta’ammuli da ita kwarai ainun, ciki harda kara ruruta wutan ciwon hawan jini.
    3. Yawan cin ‘ya’yan itace da ganyeyyeki (fruits and veggies). Yawan cin ‘ya’yan itace da ganyeyyeki wato vegitables na rage cholesterol wadda ke taimakawa wajen rage hauhawan jini.
    4. Motsa jiki akai-akai (exercise regularly). Motsa jiki na da muhimmanci ga rayuwa sosai haka nan ma yake da amfani wajen yakar ciwon hawan jini.
    5. Amfani da magunguna antihypertensive drugs. Amfani da irin wadannan magunguna na taimakawa mara lafiya samun natsuwa da karin hakuri da rayuwa wanda hakan ke taimakawa gaya wajen rage cutar hawan jini.

    A karshe, ciwon hawan jini wadda akafi asani da hypertension na da matukar wahala sosai amma abin murnan ana shine ciwo ne da ake iya kare kai daga kamu da ita. Za a iya samun kariya da ita ne ta hanyar kula da irin abincin da ake ci da kula da rashin shiga damuwa  sannan kuma da yawan duba blood pressure da kuma ziyartan likita akai-akai.

    Jan hankali: Asalin wannan makala an rubuta shi ne da harshen Turanci a taskar Penprofile, mu kuma a Bakandamiya muka fassara muku zuwa harshen Hausa. Mai karatu na iya karanta na Turancin ta hanyar danna nan. Kaman yadda kuka sani, burinmu a Bakandamiya shine mu yada ingantaccen ilimi ga kowa da kowa, musamman ga masu amfani da harshen Hausa, saboda haka muke kokarin kawo muku makalu masu inganci don karuwanku da al’umma baki daya. Kar ku manta, za ku iya duba daruruwan makalunmu akan maudu’ai daban-daban na ilimi a sashin makalunmu. Sannan kuma mutum na iya zama mamba na Bakandamiya ta hanyar yin rajista kyauta don samu full access to thousands of our materials.

    Har ila yau, mai karatu na iya duba wannan makala da ya yi cikakken bayani game da abinda mai cutar hawan jini ya kamata ya yi.

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