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Dalilan da ke cusa yawan damuwa da bakin ciki ga matasa a yau

  • A wannan zamani namu na yau, yawan bakin ciki da damuwa, wato depression and anxiety, a Turance, sun yi yawa kwarai a cikin al’umma, musamman ma matasa. Dalilai da dama kan haifarwa mutane – yara kanana, da matasa, kai harma da tsoffi – shiga halayya na damuwa da bakin ciki. Hakan kan iya ta’azzara ya zame musu cututtuka da suka shafi kwakwalwa wanda ke iya yin mummunar tasiri a rayuwarsu.

    Matasa kamar ‘yan makaranta irin jami’o’i da sauran manyan makarantu sun fi kowa shiga irin wannan matsala. Domin kuwa basu yi hankalin da manya ke da shi ba na iya juriya da irin yanayi na rayuwa da kan sami mutum. Za ka ga cewa daga zaran wani dan matsala ta damuwa ko bacin rai ya same su sai su bi su kwallafa abin a ransu har ya zame musu irin wannan cutar na depression da anxiety

    Wai shin ya ya yawaitar wannan cutar ta bakin ciki (depression) ya ke ne?

    A wani bincike da aka yi ba da jimawa ba a wani mujallar lafiya ta kasar Amurka mai suna, American Journal of Psychiatry a Turance, an bayyana wasu kididdiga masu ban mamakin gaske game da wannan matsala. A fadin wannan binciken, yawan yara ‘yan makarantan sakandare har izuwa matasa da ke gaba da sakandare masu fama da wannan cuta ta depression ya yi tashin gwauron zabi. Kididdigar yace alkaluman sun tashi daga kashi 3.3% cikin dari har izuwa 7.06% cikin dari daga shekarar 1991 zuwa shekarar 2020 — shekara ashirin ke nan idan shekarar 2020 ta tsaya. Karin da aka samu ya kusan tasarma kashi 50% ke nan cikin dari duk a cikin shekaru ashirin.

    Me ke janwo ciwon bakin ciki ne?

    1. Shiga wani tashin hankali da kan taba kwakwalwa ko ma jiki (mental or physical trauma)
    2. Samun koma baya ko kuma rashin nasara a rayuwa
    3. Sakin aure ko kuma rashin wani masoyi, misali, rashin dan uwa haka
    4. Yawan shiga matsala da tashin kanlali (stress and tension)
    5. Mutumin da ya fuskanci cin zarafi da ya shafi fyade ko makamancin hakan (wannan kan shafi mace ko namiji)
    6. Kyankyani da ke farawa daga yaranta da kuma tsoro na ba gaira babu dalili (phobias and irrational fear)
    7. Cin zarafi da wasu kan fuskanta a cikin gida, wato domestic violence, a Turance

    Yaya ake gane mutum na fama da ciwon bakin ciki?

    Gano mutum mai fama da ciwon bakin ciki abu ne mai wuya, saboda yawanci mutane basu son bayyana damuwarsu ga idon duniya. Sai kaga mutum na farin ciki da nuna jin dadi a filli, amma a ciki labarin daban ya ke. Amma tabbas in har wannan cutar ta tsananta, alamu zai fara nuni a jikin mai dauke da ita. Ga wasu daga cikin alamun cutar:

    1. Rama mai tsanani ko kuma karin kiba cikin lokaci kankani
    2. Mutum ya rika jin rashin dadin zuciyarsa, ko baya iya daukan mataki (indecisiveness), ko kuma jin takaici da makamantan wadannan yanayi.
    3. Rashin ganin darajar kai (low self-esteem) da kuma rashin iya tabuka abin kirki
    4. Rashin bacci ko kuma yawan baccin
    5. Rashin jin dadin abinci, ko fama da kasala da yawan rashin lafiya

    Za a iya duba: Abubuwan da ya kamata a sani game da ciwon hawan jini

    Ya ya za a magance wannan matsala?

    1. Neman taimako ta hanyar zuwa asibiti (medical help)

    Tabbas, ba yadda za a yi ace mutum ya magance depression ba tare da neman taimakon kwararru  ba. Kwararre zai taimakawa mutum wajen samun waraka daga cutar sannan kuma zai iya ba da taimakon da zai kare faruwan hakan a gaba.

    2. Ta hanyar yin aromatherapy

    Shi wannan hanyar ana bin shine wajen amfani da essential oils masu lausasa jiki da kuma abubuwan kamshi masu kwantar da zuciya (calming fragrances) don kirkiro yanayin da zai ba da kwanciyar hankali da natsuwa. Mutum na iya fesa irin wadannan mayuka (essential oils) a cikin gida, da kuma kan matashi (pillow) ko kuma fesa shi ta hanyar amfani da injin diffuser. Mayukan da akafi amfani da su a wannan hanyar na aromatherapy sun hada da; lavender, da rose, da sandal da kuma eucalyptus oils.

    Ana iya samun su a shagunan saida turare da mayuka kusan ko ina. Ga hoton wasu daga cikin wadannan mayukan a kasa:

     

    Hakkin mallakar hoto: science-based medicine

    3Ta hanyar talk therapy da psychotherapy

    Wannan hanyar, na psychotherapy ko talk therapy, ita ma wata hanya ce da ake bi wajen magance wannan yanayi na depression. A ita wannan hanyar, mara lafiya zai rika amayar da cikinsa ne, wato zai rika yin zance duk wata damuwa ta sa da duk wani abinda ke zuciyarsa ga psychologist na shi. Anan aikin shi psychologist din shine kokarin fahimtar matsalar da ke damun mara lafiya ta hanyar lura da halayansa (behaviour) don ganin matakin da ya kamata a bi don shawo kan matsalar. Ana sa ran wannan maganar da mara lafiyar ya yi zai rage tsananin wannan cuta harma in an yi sa’a ya zame masa hanyar waraka gaba daya. Duk da cewa wasu na kokwanton ko wannan hanyar na psychotherapy na amfani, amma dai akwai tsammanin cewa idan aka hada wannan hanyar da magani, da yardan Allah mutum zai samu lafiya.

    4. Ta hanyar art therapy

    Yawaita yin zane (drawing) da kuma yin coloring, haka zalika da sauraren wake (music) sune hanyar art da ake cewa suna sanya mutum farin ciki da samun wadatar zuci. Suna nakasa kwayan hormone nan mai suna cortisol, wadda ke sa mutum shiga damuwa. Sannan suna bunkasa hormone na farin ciki kamar su dopamine da kuma serotonin.

    Bin wannan hanyar zai haifar da farin ciki da annashuwa wadda zai iya magance wannan yanayi na depression.

    5. Ta hanyar cognitive behavioral therapy

    A wannan hanyar likita kan kula da halayyan mutum ne (mara lafiyan) ta hanyar kokarin fahimtar yadda mutum ke tunanin da kuma yadda zuciyarsa ta ke aiki. Sannan kuma zai duba irin negative emotions da ke tattare da wannan mutum. Bayan haka, sai likitan ya shirya jinya ta musamman da ya cancanci damuwan wannan mara lafiyar.

    Mai karatu na iya duba wata makalar: Bayanan masana game da cutar gyambon kafa mai suna venous leg ulcer

    Wai shin me ke faruwa ne da ke haifar da ciwon damuwa (anxiety)?

    A dai yadda abin yake a yanzu, kusam mutum miliyan shida da digo takwas (6.8 million) ne a kasar Amurka aka same su suna da ciwon damuwa. A cikin wadannan mutane da ke dauke da wannan matsala duk yawancin su matasa ne da ke a makarantu sakandare da kuma jami’o’i.

    Ana alakanta ciwon damuwa ne da yanayi da ke hana mutum shiga cikin jama’a ko zuwa wajajen bukukuwa. Mutane da ke fama da ciwon damuwa da ake kira da general anxiety kan shiga cikin tsaka mai wuya (panic attack) da zaran sun tuna za su fita cikin jama’a da basu saba da su ba (outside of their comfort zone).

    Wasu dalilai ne kan jawa wannan ciwon na damuwa?

    1. Matsala na rashin kudi (financial stress)
    2. Matsatsi a wurin aiki, ko gida ko kuma wajen wani alaka na daban
    3. Dalilan shan wasu magunguna (side effects of medical aid or illness)
    4. Shiga wani yanayi da ya girgiza mutum (emotional trauma)
    5. Tsoro na mutane da baida wani dalili
    6. Rashin sanin darajar kai (low self-esteem) ko tsangwama (bullying)
    7. Dalilin shan miyagun kwayoyi, kamar cocaine da makamatanshi.

    Alamun ciwon damuwa (sign and symptom of anxiety)

    1. Mutum ya rika jin yana cikin kunci, da rashin jin dadin da saurin fushi
    2. Rashin iya natsuwa da rashin iya sa hankali a wajen abu daya, misali idan karatu mutum yake yi ba zai iya fahimtar abinda yake karantawa ba
    3. Jin tsoro mai tsanani (panic attack) ba tare da wani dalili na azo-a-gani ba
    4. Rashin son shiga jama’a
    5. Rashin iya isar da sakon da ya dace idan ana magana (poor communication skills)
    6. Tsoro na babu-gaira-babu-dalili

    Yaya za a yi a rabu da wannan matsalar ta damuwa?

    1. Cin abinci mai lafiya kamar balanced diet mai dauke da sinadarai irin su omega 3 fatty acids da kuma abincin da ake kira fermented food zai taimaka wajen rage ciwon damuwa.
    2. Rage abinci mai sinadarin caffeine. Sannan rabuwa da shaye-shaye kamar su taba, wiwi da su giya na taimakawa kwarai ainun wajen rage damuwa.
    3. Yin meditation da kuma yoga na amfani sosai wajen rage wannan matsala

    Mai ya sa yara ‘yan makaranta suka fi fama da wannan matsaloli na depression da anxiety?

    A bisa bayanai na bincike da dama sun nuna cewa matasa ‘yan makarantun jami’a sun fi shiga matsalar ciwon bakin ciki da damuwa. Dalilai da dama sun haifar da wannan lamari. Ga kadan daga cikinsu:

    Social media (kafafun sada zumunta)

    Social media ya zame wa matasa wajen yin hira da fadin albarkacin bakunansu. Baicin wannan, matasan na tsere-tsere wajen saka shahararrun hotunansu da kuma wasu kyawawan bangaren rayuwarsu a waddannan kafa don burge abokansu. Wannan gasa da ake yi ya sa matasa da dama suna kwatanta kawunansu da wasu. Sai su rika ganin ai su kam basu da sa’a saboda irin ganin abinda su wadancan abokan nasu ke nunawa duniya suna da shi.

    Amma abinda su wadannan matasa basu gane ba shine, shi wannan social media ba wai gaba daya rayuwar mutum ya kunsa ba, a’a wani bangare ne kalilan kowa ke nunawa na raruwarsa.

    Saboda haka wannan lamari in ba a yi hankali ba sai ya zama ciwon bakin ciki da damuwa. Matasa su sani kowa na da matsalarsa!

    Shaye-shayen miyagun kwayoyi

    Matasa a har kullum sukan dau dabi’u da yawa a wurin a bokansu. A wannan zamani shaye-shaye ya yi yawa cikin al’umma saboda haka a makarantu ma abin ya ta’azzara.

    Wannan lamari na shaye-shaye, kamar yadda kowa ya sani, yana illata ‘yan makaranta. Kadan daga cikin illolin shine ciwon bakin ciki da damuwa wadda hakan kan iya kai su ga rashin sanin darajar kai, wato low self-esteem, a Turance da ma matsaloli da dama wadda ciwon damuwa da bakin ciki ke haifarwa.

    Yanayi na gasa a yau (career pressure)

    Kasancewar rayuwar wannan zamani ya ta’allaka ne kacokam akan gasa da nuna isa, inda za ka ga kowa kokari ya ke ya ga ya kere dan uwansa, hakan ya sa matasa na shiga tsaka mai wuya wajen matsi da suke fuskanta daga wajen iyayensu harma da malamansu. Iyaye da malaman na tursasa yaran shiga a dama da su, don ganin suma nasu  yaran ba'a barsu a baya ba. Saboda irin wannan matsi wasu matasa kan shiga cikin damuwa, musamman in har basu (matasan) yi sa’a da yawan samun nasara ba a rayuwa.

    Matsi na wajen abokai (peer pressure)

    Yawacin matasa na tsintan kansu a cikin matsi da tsangwama na abokai a makarantu, wato abin nan da aka fi sani da suna bullying a Turance. Kuma mafi yawan lokuta su waddanan abokai masu bullying din suma kansu suna fama ne da damuwa amma sai su sauke shi ga wadda suka renawa hankali a makaranta. Wannan halayya na bullying na haifar da ciwon damuwa da kuma bakin ciki ga ‘yan makaranta.

    Saboda haka matasa ‘yan makaranta su lura da kyau da irin abokansu don kare kawunan su daga shiga irin wannan matsala na bullying.

    Mene ne abin yi don ganin an rage wannan matsaloli a wurin matasanmu

    Da yawa da ga cikin matasa ‘yan makaranta sukan boye damuwarsu don kar a musu dariya ko kuma a ce sun kasa. Wannan boye matsala na damuwa kan iya jefa su cikin halin ha'ula’i.

    Dalibai da matasa gaba daya ya kamata su sani cewa shiga cikin damuwa da bakin ciki ba abin kunya ba ne, kowa na iya shiga. A taimaka musu wajen basu kwarin guiwa don bayyana matsalarsu ba tare da tsangwama ba.

    Ga kadan daga cikin abubuwan da ya kamata a yi don rage wannan matsala a tsakanin matsa:

    1. Ya kamata makarantu su rika shirya fadakarwa game da cutuka na mental health irin su ciwon bakin ciki da damuwa. Wannan zai taimakawa matasa sanin abin yi a lokacin da matsalar ta same su.
    2. Shawarwari game da aikin yi, wato career guidance, a Turance, na taimakon daliban da matsalarsu na tunanin abin yi bayan an kammala karatu. Saboda haka makarantu ya kamata su maida hankali akan wannan.
    3. Makarantu na iya shirya talk therapy session don bawa dalibai dama su rika fadin damuwansu ba tare da tsangwama ba.
    4. Kuma abu mai muhimmanci, duk lokacin da wani matashi ya nuna yana cikin damuwa ko cikin bakin ciki kar a dauki abin da sauki ayi kokarin bada taimako da ya kamata cikin gaggawa.

    A karshe, muna iya fahimtar cewa fama da ciwon bakin ciki ko damuwa abu ne mai wuyan sha’ani, amma idan mutum ya mai da hankali ya bi hanyar da ya dace, za a rabu da shine kamar ba a yi ba. Allah Ya kawowa mana dauki da zaman lafiya!

    Sannan za a iya dubaYadda za a cire sinadarai masu guba da ake samu a cikin alluran ragafi

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