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Tarihin wasu masana harshe da irin gudummawar da suka bayar a ɓangaren harshe

  • Tarihi a kullum shi ke fito da duk wani abu da ya ɓuya tare da bayyana irin abin da ya wakana a wannan lokacin. To wannan makala zai taɓo tarihin wasu shahararrun masana ne a fannin harshe da kuma irin gudummawar da suka bayar wajen bunƙasa harshe a duniya. Wadannan masana sun hada ne da:

    1. Ferdinand de Saussure
    2. Kenneth Lee Pike
    3. Leonard Bloomfield
    4. Noam Chomsky
    5. Panini of India
    6. Prague School of Linguistics
    7. Edward Sapir

    Zamu fara da tarihin da kuma gudmmawar Ferdinand de Saussure.

    Takaitaccen tarihin Ferdinand de Saussure

    An haifi Ferdinand De Saussure ran 26 November 1857 a garin Geneva na ƙasar Amurka ya kuma yi karatunsa a Geneva da Paris in da ya yi nazarin harshen Sankrit. yana ɗan kimanin shekaru 21 ne ya wallafa wata takarda mai take “Note on the Primitive System of the Indo-European Vowels” wato littafi mai ɗauke da tsarin wasulan Indo-European. Ya kuma mutu ran 22 February 1913.

    Ayyukan/Gudummawar Ferdinand de Saussure

    Yana da wuya a ce mutum mai irin wannan tarihi ya kasa wasu aikace-aikace da al’umma za ta amfana da shi a fagen ilmi. Saboda haka akwai irin aikace-aikace da dama da shi ma wannan masani ya yi a matsayin gudummawarsa a ɓangaren ilmin harshe da wasu ɓangarori na ilmin rayuwa waɗanda adadinsu ba za su ƙirgu ba, amma za mu binciko kaɗan daga cikin irin aikace-aikacen shi da suka shafi waɗannan ɓangarori ga su kamar haka:

    • Akwai laccar aji da ya yi ɗalibansa suka haɗa ya zama littafi wanda littafin ne ya haifar da samuwar tsarin Nahawu wato “Structural Grammar”
    • Ya ba da gudummawa a fagen harshe wanda ya sa ake masa laƙabi da “Father of linguistics” wato shugaban masana harshe. Daga cikin aikace-aikacensa na harshe akwai:

    Nazarin kimiyyar tsarin rayuwar ɗan Adam na ƙarni na 19 sannan ya bayyano bambanci makusantan juna game da nazarin harshe, waɗannan su ne: “synchronic da diachronic” wato mai ɗauke da abin da harshe ke da shi na asali (synchronic) da kuma wadda ke bibiyan ɓurɓushin sauyin harshe daga lokaci zuwa lokaci (diachronic).

    • Ya bambance tsakanin ‘langue’ da Parole wanda langue ke nufin harshen da kowace al’umma ta mallaka la parole kuma ainihin abin da ya bayyana na harshe ga kowane mutum mai amfani da wannan harshen. Wannan bambancin shi ya haifar da samuwar harshe da ƙabila da muke da su a yau.
    • Ya bambance yadda dangantakar kalmomi a cikin jimla suke (syntagmatic) da kuma irin kalmomin da suke musayar gurbi a cikin jimla (paradigmatic)
    • Ya kuma bambance tsakanin kalmomi biyu a harshe wato sautuka dake wakiltar wani abu (signifier) da kuma abin da sautukan suka tayar (signified)
    • Ya wallafa takarda mai take “Note on the Primitive System of the Indo-European Vowels” wato littafi mai ɗauke da tsarin wasulan Indo-European.

    Ku karanta makala ta gaba da za ta kawo muku tarihin Kenneth Lee Pike wanda shima ya bada gudummawa matuka a fannin ilmin harshe. Har ila yau, kuna iya karanta tarihin Leonard Bloomfield da Noam Chomsky da kuma Panini don fahimtar irin gudummawar da suma suka bayar a fanni na ilmin harshe. Har ila yau akwai makalar dake bayani akan gudummawar yan mazhabar Prague, wadanda suma sun taka rawar gani matuka.

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