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Tarihin Kenneth Lee Pike da gudummawar da ya bayar a fagen harshe

  • A wata makalarmu ta baya mun yi matashiya akan tarihin manyan masana harshe da kuma irin gudumawa da suka bayar a fagen bincike da bunkasa ilimin harshe. Daya daga cikin wadannan masana shine Kenneth Lee Pike. A yau zamu kawo muku cikakken tarihinsa da kuma irin gudumawar da ya bayar a wannan fanni na kimiyyar harsuna.

    An haifi Kenneth Lee Pike ranar 9 ga watan Yuni, 1912 a ƙasar woodstok sannan kuma ya yi karatun addinin kirista wato Theology a kwalejin Gordon India ya yi digirinsa na farko a shekarar 1933. Kudirinsa ta farko ita ce ya yi aikin mishon a ƙasar china. Lokacin da wannan damar ba ta samu ba sai ya wuce zuwa cibiyar nazarin harsuna summer institute of Linguistics) a Mexico domin nazarin harsuna a 1935 inda ya yi nazarin harshen Mixtec daga wurin asalin masu harshen. Bayan ya yi makarantarsa ne ya shiga aikin wallafe-wallafe litattafai a fannin harshe

    A 1937 ne Pike ya tafi zuwa jami’ar Michigan, domin samun digirinsa na uku Ph.D. a 1942 ƙarƙashin jagorancin mai kula da aikinsa Charles C. Fries. Sannan binciken nasa da ya gudanar ya shafi harshen Mixtec ne, bayan kammalawarsa ne shi da matarsa Evelyn suka ƙirƙiro da wata hanya ta rubutun harshen Mixtec. Daga wannan ne ya zama shugaban wannan cibiyar ta farko wato Summer Institute in Linguistics (SIL), babban ƙudirin wannan cibiyar ita ce ta fassara littafin Injila zuwa harsunan da babu rubuce-rubuce a kai, wanda a 1951 ne ya wallafa wani littafinsa mai taken Mixtec New Testament. Wato sabon alƙawari a harshen Mixtec.

    Gudummawar Kenneth Lee Pike a fagen ilmin harshe

    1. Gudummawar da Kenneth Lee Pike ya bayar a fannin harshe basu misaltuwa kuma ba za a iya kididdige su ba amma dangane da wannan aikin za mu zaƙulo kaɗan daga cikin irin ayyukansa da suka fito fili a matsayin tubali na wannan aikin.
    2. Shi ne ya fassara littafin Injila zuwa harshen Mixtec mai taken Mixtec New Testament, wato Sabon Alƙawari a harshen Mixtec.
    3. Shi ne ya ƙirƙiro da ra’in Tagmemic, a ciki ne ya fito da "emic" da "etic" sannan ya sake ɗabbaka harshen Kalaba-X saboda karantar da ra’in fassara. Bugu da kari shi ne shugaba na farko a hukumar fassara Linjila Summer Institute in Linguistic (SIL) shi ne yake riƙe da shugabancin har lokacin mutuwarsa.
    4. Ya kuma bunƙasa harshen turanci wajen rubuce-rubucen littattafai da suka shafi nahawun harshen da sauransu.

    Wadannan sune kadan daga cikin irin ayyukan da Kenneth Lee Pike ya aiwatar a lokacin rayuwarsa. 

    Kuna iya karanta tarihin Leonard Bloomfield da irin gudumar da shima ya bayar a fagen ilmin harshe, ko kuma masan

    in ilmin harsunan nan Noam Chomsky da kuma Pāṇini wanda shima ya gawurtacce ne a wannan fanni a tsohuwar kasar India, inda yayi rubutu masu tasiri akan nahwun  Sanskrit, shararre daga cikin rubutunsa shine: Aṣṭādhyāyī. Sai kuma irin ayyuka da gudummawar mazhabar Prague.

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