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Tarihi da gudummawar Leonard Bloomfield a fagen ilmin harshe

  • Kamar yadda ya gabata a makala ta baya cewa masana da dama sun bada gudummawa a fagen ilmin harshe, wato linguistics a Turance, kuma mun zakulo kadan daga cikinsu don yin bayanin irin gudummawar da kowannensu ya bayar. A yau za mu yi bayanin tarihi da ayyukan dan kasar Amurkan nan ne Leonard Bloomfield.

    An haifi Leonard Bloomfield ran daya ga watan Afirilu, 1887, a garin Chicago ta ƙasar Amurka iyayensa Jusawa ne sun yi ƙaura ne zuwa tafkin Elkhart a 1896, a wurin ne ya yi makarantar Elimantari sannan ya sake komawa Chicago don cigaba da makarantar sakandare. Kawunsa Maurice sananne ne a fagen harshe kuma masanin harshe ne (Linguist) a jami’ar Hopkins. Ya kuma halacci kwalejin Harvard a 1903 zuwa 1906 inda ya samu diginsa na farko ya kuma fara aiki a jami’ar Wisconsin-Madison, inda yake koyar da harshen Jamusanci da kuma wasu kwasa-kwasai na indo-European. Haɗuwarsa da ya yi da wani masani Eduard Prokosh, a wannan jami’ar ta Wisconsin, ya ba wa Bloomfield sha’awar ɗaukar fannin harshe a matsayin abin dogaro.

    A 1908 ne Bloomfield ya wuce zuwa jami’ar Chicago inda ya ɗauki wasu kwasa-kwasan Gamusanci da na indo-European wurin Frances A. da Wood da Carl Darling Buck. Sannan digirinsa na uku da ya gudanar da aikin ƙarƙashin kulawar Wood ne a 1909 sannan ya ci gaba da wasu karatu a jami’ar Gottingen a 1913 da 1914 ƙarƙashin jagorancinc wasu masana harsunan Indo-European August Leskien da Karl Brugmann da kuma Hermann Oldenberg, masani a harshen Sanskrit. Bloomfield ya koyi wannan harshen na sankrit a jami’ar Gottingen a wurin wani masanin harshen wato Jacob Wackernagel,

    Gudummawar Leonard Bloomfield a fagen ilmin harshe

    Kasancewar Bloomfield ya yi karatunsa ne a jami’ar Harvard da kuma jami’ar Wisconsin da Chicago. Ya karantar daga shekarar 1909 zuwa 1927 a jami’o’I dabam-daban kafin ya zamo Farfesa a harshen Gamus a jami’ar Chicago a (1927–1940) sannan Farfesa a ilmin kimiyyar harshe a jami’ar Yale a (1940–1949). Kasancewarsa a wannan matsayi ya taimaka tare da ba da gagarumin gudummawa a fagen harshe, amma ga kaɗan daga cikin gudummawarsa kamar haka:

    1. A 1920 ne ya bijiro da aikace-aikacensa a North American Indian Languages, wato harsunan da suke Arewacin Amurka da India.
    2. Bloomfield ya sauya tsarin zaman harshe cikin wani littafi da ya wallafa mai take An Introduction to the Study of Language (1914). Sannan ya zaƙulo wani aiki a harshen Malayo-Polynesian (Austronesian) Tagalog.
    3. Ya bayyana yadda bambanci da dangantaka dake akwai tsakanin harsunan gunduman Algonquian.
    4. Ya taiamaka wajen tantance harshen Jamusanci a fagen ilmin sautin harshe da kuma ilmin tsarin sauti na wannan harshe.
    5. Ya yi bayani dalla-dalla game da tsarin harshen Indo-European wanda ya fi mai da hankalinsa kan harshen Jamusanci ta gefen ilmin ginin kalma da tsarin jimla.

    Wadannan sune kadan daga cikin irin gudummawar da Leonard Bloomfield ya bayar a fagen ilmin harshe. Kuna iya karanta tarihi da gudummawar da shima shahararren masanin harshe, Kenneth Lee Pike ya bayar a lokacin rayuwarsa. Haka ma tarihin Noam Chomsky da kuma Panini tare da irin rawar gani da suka yi a wannan fanni na harshe. Kana kuna iya karanta irin gudummawar da yan mazhabar Prague suma suka bayar.

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