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Tarihi da gudummawar Panini a fagen ilmin harshe

  • Panini na daga cikin masana da suka bada muhimman gudummawa a fannin ilmin harshe na farko-farko. A wannan makala zan kawo muku kadan daga cikin irin wadannan gudummawa da ya bayar.

    Panini, wanda a ma’ana ta tsatso, Kalmar na nufin ‘ dan tsatson Pani’ watau, decendant of Pani’. An haife shi a garin Shalatula, kusa da Attock kogin Indus na Pakistan a yanzu. Dangane da lokacin da aka haife shi kuma an samu tirjiya, domin kuwa akwai hasashen mutane da dama, domin wasu na cewa a ƙarni na 4th, 5th, 6th da 7th haka kuma akwai rashin amincewar masana kan irin aikace-aikacensa da ya gudanar, amma abin da ya fi fitowa fili game da shi shi ne, yana ɗaya daga cikin mutane da Allah ya yi wa baiwar ƙirƙirar abubuwan da za su taimaka wajen ciyar da al’umma gaba game da ilmi.

    Panini dai masanin nahawun Sanskrit ne wanda ya bayyana ra’in ilmin tsarin sauti da kuma ilmin sautin harshe da kuma ilmin ginin kalma daki-daki. Harshen Sanskrit na daga cikin tsirarun harsuna a Indian Hindus wanda Panini ya ƙirƙiro da shi da kuma adabin wannan harshen. Abin fahinta a nan shi ne "Sanskrit" na nufin "gabaɗaya" ko "gwani" sannan ana ganinsa a matsayin harshen alloli ne (language of the gods

    Gudummawar Panini a fagen ilmin harshe

    1. Ya ƙirƙiro harshen Sankrits wanda a yau sama da kimanin mutane milya arba’in ke amfani da wannan harshen a matsayin harshen uwa.
    2. Astadhyayi (ko Astaka ) na daga cikin manyan ayyukan Panini. Wanda ya ƙunshi babi guda takwas (8) sannan kuma kowane babi an sake raba shi zuwa wasu babukan, a wannan aikin Panini ya bambance tsakanin harshe mai tsarki ne da kuma harshen da ake amfani da shi wajen mu’amala.

    Ya ba da hujjojinsa ta hanyar kawo ka’idoji da dokokin harshe da su bayyana nahawun Sanskrit. Wanda ya fara da wasu kalmomi guda 1700 daga ciki akwai suna da aikatau da baƙaƙe da wasula sannan ya sanya kowannensu cikin aji da ya dace sannan kuma ya nuna yadda tsarin jimla da haɗaɗɗun suna suke da sauransu. Ya yi amfani da yankuna (phrases) da dama wajen fayyace Nahawu

    Bata ga wadannan, masana sun yi yakinin cewa ayyukan Panini nada tasiri matuka a cikin ayyuka da binciken shahararrun masana ilmin harshe irin su Ferdinand de Saussure da kuma Leonard Bloomfield

    Kana idan kuna bukata, zaku iya karanta wasu makalar da suka kawo gudummawa da ayyukan masana irin su Noam Chomsky da Kenneth Lee Pike, ko kuma irin gudummawar da mazhabar Prague ta bayar.

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