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A yaushe ya kamata na karawa verb 's' a cikin sentence?

    • Moderator
    • 8 posts
    April 4, 2019 8:56 AM BST
    A wajen making sentence za ka samu wani lokaci an karawa verb 's' wani lokaci kuma ba'a kara mishi ba. Misali:

    1. They go to school every evening.
    2. He goes to school every morning.

    Yaushe ne zan yi amfani da 'go' ko kuma 'goes'
    • Moderator
    • 8 posts
    April 4, 2019 3:28 PM BST

    Hakika mutane da dama sukan yi kuskuren amfani da karin 's' wajen making sentence na su. Babban dalili shine akasari yarukanmu na farko, wato mother tongue na mu, ba su da ka'idoji irin daya da na Turanci wajen gina jumlolinsu. Turanci na da dan yawan ka'idoji game da abinda ya shafi dangantaka tsakanin 'subject' da 'verb', wato mai aiki da aikatau, ko kuma 'fa'ili' da fi'ili a Larabce.

     

    Ga bayanin yadda amfani da 's' yake kamar haka:

     

    1. Na farko dai ka'idace da shafi dangantaka tsakanin 'subject' da 'verb'. A giramance, wato in English grammar, ana kiran wannan ka'ida da suna 'concord'. Ko wadanda suka yi karatu mai zurfi ne, wani lokaci akan same su da matsalar concord.

     

    Fahimtar yadda mutum zai yi amfani da ‘s’ ba zai yiwu ba har sai mun fahimci cikakken ma’anar subject da verb kamar yadda suka zo cikin ka’idojin Turanci. Ku biyo ni da sannu.

     

    2. Menene subject? Subject shine wanda ya aikata aikin da ake magana a cikin sentence. Misali:

     

     - Musa went to the market yesterday.

     

    A sentence namu na sama, subject shine 'Musa', saboda shi ya aikata aikin zuwa kasuwa.

     

    Idan kuma sentence din ba aiki aka yi a ciki ba, to menene subject a nan? A nan za mu iya cewa subject shine abinda sentence din ke magana akan shi. Misali:

     

     - Ahmad is my brother.

     

    Idan aka lura, a sentence namu na sama, Ahmad ba wani aiki ya aikata ba, amma duk da haka a Turance muna kiranshi subject, saboda akan shi aka gina sentence din.

     

    A ka'ida, subject na iya zama daya ko fiye da daya, wanda a Larabci ake kira mufrad ko jam'i. Subject daya shine kamar misalan sentences namu na baya, wato 'Musa' ko kuwa 'Ahmad'.

     

    Har'ila yau, a ka'idance Musa ko Ahmad za a iya musanyasu da wakilin suna, wato 'pronoun' a Turance, a kira su da 'he'. Ko sunan kaitsaye a ka yi amfani da shi ko kuwa wakilin sunan, duk matsayin su mufrad ne, wato 'singular subject'.

     

    Idan kuma aka yi amfani da suna ko abubuwa fiye da daya a mazaunin subject, to sun zama plural subject, wato jam'i. Misali:

     

     - Musa and Ahmad are brothers.

     

    Kun ga anan idan za a musanya Musa da Ahmad da wakilin suna, sai ace 'they', wato ‘they are my brothers.’

     

    Har yanzu wani muhimmin wani abu da yakamata a sani game da subject shine, shi subject ya kasu kashi uku ne. Akwai:

     

     - First person (mutum na farko)

     - Second person (mutum na biyu)

     - Third person (mutum na uku)

     

    First person (mutum na farko) a cikin sentence shine wanda shi yake magana da kansa a cikin wannan sentence din. Misali:

     

     - I am going to attend a lesson at school.

     - We are celebrating our brother's wedding tomorrow.

     

    A duk misalai guda biyu na sama za ku ga cewa wadanda suka furta wadannan sentences guda biyu ('I' da kuma 'We'), suna magana ne game da kansu. Wannan kuma shi yasa ka'idar Turanci ya kira 'I' da 'We' a matsayin 'first person.' Su biyun nan sune kadai subject da ake kira da first person.

     

    Misalan second person, wato mutum na biyu kuma, sune 'You'. Walau 'You' dake nuni ga mutum daya ne, ko kuwa 'You' dake nuni da mutum biyu. Misali:

     

     - You (Haruna) are a good person.

     - You (Haruna and Ali) are good people.

     

    Kun ga a nan mun fahimci cewa wakilin suna 'you' kan iya daukan mufradi ko jam'i.

     

    To me yasa aka kira su da suna mutum na biyu? Idan kuka lura a duk sentence da muka yi amfani da 'you', za ku ga cewa, wani ne ko wasu suke magana da wasu mutane daban, kuma ya nuna duk suna tare wuri guda ne. Misali: Jamila ce take cewa Haruna 'you are a good person.' A nan, first person ita ce Jamila, sannan second person shine Haruna, wato 'you.' Haka yake a misali na biyu, illa kawai misali na biyun plural ne wato jam'in 'you.

     

    Sai kuma abinda ake nufi da third person, wato mutum na uku. To idan muka ce Jamila ita ce mutum na farko (wato 'I'), sannan Haruna ya kasance mutum na biyu (wato 'you’), to waye mutum na uku? Ku duba misalin sentence na kasa:

     

     - I told you to invite Musa to our graduation walimah.

     - I (Jamila) told you (Haruna) to invite Musa to our graduation walimah.

     

    Ina fata mai karatu ya fahimci yadda bayanin yake a misalinmu na sama. Jamila ita ce first person, Haruna shine second person, sannan Musa shine third person. Kusan duk Magana ko sentence da za a gina, komai girmansa, bai wuce ya kunshi mutane uku: mai Magana (first person), da wanda yake magana dashi (second person) da kuma wanda ake magana akanshi (third person).

     

    Don haka misalan third person sune: 'He' da 'She' da 'It' da kuma 'They.' Ukun farko duk singular ne, sai na karshe 'they' ana kiranshi plural, kamar haka:

     

     - Third person singular (subjects): he, she, it

     

     - Third person plural (subject): they

     

    A takaice wannan shine bayani akan subject. Don haka, kada a manta, subject shine wanda ya yi aiki a cinkin sentence, ko kuwa shine wanda sentence din take magana akanshi. Abu na biyu kuma shine subject na iya zama singular ko plural, ma'ana daya ko fiye da daya. Haka kuma kada a manta, subject ya kasu zuwa first person, second person da kuma third person.

     

    3. To menene verb kuma? Kai tsaye, verb shine aiki, wato fi'ili a Larabce. Idan kuka duba misalin sentence na mu na farko (Musa went to the market yesterday), Musa shine ma'aikaci, sannan kuma zuwa ko tafiya kasuwa ita ce aikin, ma'ana ita ce verb. A ka'idar Turanci da ma kowane yare (iyakar sani na), sentence baya zama cikakke mai ma'ana, wato abinda ake kira a Larabci 'jumla al mufiida', har sai an samu subject da kuma verb, ko da kuwa ba a rubuta su a zahiri ba.

     

    To idan kuma babu aiki a cikin sentence din fa, kamar yadda yazo a misalinmu na biyu (Ahmad is my brother)? A nan 'is' ita ce aikin. Tunda kuma babu ma'anar aiki a cikinta, to sai mudauketa a matsayin bangare na sentence dake bayani a kan subject.

     

    A takaice za mu iya fahimta cewa, cikakken sentence kodai yana dauke ne da mai aiki da aiki, ko kuwa yana dauke ne da wani abu da kuma abinda ake fada akan wannan abun ko mutumin. Amma a Turance duk sunansu subject and verb.

     

    Tunda yanzu mun fahimci ma'ana dake tattare da kalmomin subject da kuma verb, to menene ka'idojin dake tattare dasu kuma dangane da amfani da 's' wanda shine asalin tambayarmu?

     

    4. Concord - To kamar yadda na yi bayani a baya, wannan ka'ida ta amfani da subject da kuma verb ana kiranta da suna 'concord.' Kamar yadda ya zo cikin grammar na Turanci, duk lokacin da mutum zai hada sentence, wato zai hada subject da kuma verb, dole ne su daidata da juna, su jibinci juna; kada su yi karo da juna.

     

    Abinda ake nufi da daidaita da juna shine kamar haka:

     

    1. Idan subject naka singular ne (wato daya ne), to dole verb naka ya zama singular (wato shima ya zama kwaya daya). Ga misali:

     

     - Aisha is my sister.

     

    A nan kun ga 'Aisha' singular ce, don haka verb da ya zo da ita ya zama singular, wato 'is'. Kar ku manta za mu iya cewa 'She is my sister' idan muka musanya sunan Aisha da wakilin suna wato pronoun, 'she'.

     

    1. Idan subject plural ne, ma'ana jam'i ne, to dole ne shima verb ya zama plural. Misali:

     

     - Aisha and Halima are my sisters.

     

    A nan kuma, tunda subject namu plural ne (Aisha and Halima), to dole ne mu yi amfani da verb na 'are', domin ita ce plural.

     

    A takaice, saba ka'ida ne ka ce 'Aisha are my sister,' ko kuwa 'Aisha and Halima is my sisters.'

     

    Don haka, a game da sanyawa verb ‘s’, ka’idojin Turanci ya nuna cewa da farko dai ana amfani da ‘s’ ne idan ana so a isar da ma’ana cewa abu na faruwa ne yau da kullum wanda a Turance ake cewa ‘habitual action’, ko kuma simple present tense’. Misali: ‘Musa goes to school everyday.’ Ko kuma ana sanar da wata Magana ta hakika wacce bata canzawa. A turance ana kiranta ‘facts’. Misali: The Sun rises in the east. Wdannan sune yanayi biyu mafi shahara da ake sanywa verb ‘s’. Akwai kari wanda bazan kawo su ba yanzu saboda kusan duk suna da alaka ne da wadannan guda biyu din.

     

    Bayan fannin ma’ana ta sentence, ga kuma yadda tsarin amfani da ‘s’ din yake a ka’idance:

     

    First person (singular and plural)

     

    i. Idan subject first person ne, ko singular ne (I) ko plural ne (We), baya daukan ‘s’. Misali:

     

    - I go to the farm every weekend.

     - We celebrate Eid after each Ramadan.

     

    Second person (singular and plural)

     

    ii. Second person (subject), ko singular ne (You) ko plural ne (You), shima baya daukan ‘s’. Misali:

    - You (Aminu) tell me about your new house every time I come.

    - You (Khadijah and Hassana) visit your grandfather during Eid.

     

    Third person (singular and plural)

     

    iii. Idan subject third person singular ne, za a sanyawa verb ‘s’, idan kuma plural ne, ba za a sanya mishi ‘s’ ba.

     - Musa (He) goes to school everyday at 8:00 am.

     - Hafsah (She) washes the dishes in the morning.

     - My dog (it) catches cold every winter period.

     

    Third person plural

     

     - Samira and Hauwa (they) play outside in the evening

     

    Abu guda da dukkanin sentences din nan suka yi tarayya akai shine suna da ma’ana cewa ana aikata ayyukan ne yau da kullum, wato ‘habitual action’.

     

    Har’ila yau, dukkanin sentences din an yi su ne a tsarin abinda ake kira declarative, wato ba negative ba; zamu iya cewa positive sentences ne ba negative ba. Negative sune wadanda kalmar ‘not’ ta shigo. Idan kuma har kalmar ‘not’ ta shigo, to wasu daga cikin ka’idojin za su dan sauya. Misali: Za mu sake kawo sentences din dukka cikin negative.

     

    First person (singular and plural)

     

    i. First person (subject), ko singular ne (I) ko plural ne (We), baya daukan ‘s’. Misali:

     

     - I do not go to the farm every weekend.

     - We do not celebrate Eid after each Ramadan.

     

    Second person (singular and plural)

     

    ii. Second person (subject), ko singular ne (You) ko plural ne (You), shima baya daukan ‘s’. Misali:

     

     - You (Aminu) do not tell me about your new house every time I come.

    - You (Khadijah and Hassana) do not visit your grandfather during Eid.

     

    Third person (singular and plural)

     

     - Musa (He) does not go to school everyday at 8:00 am.

     - Hafsah (She) does not wash the dishes in the morning.

     - My dog (it) does not catch the cold every winter period.

     

    Third person plural

     

     - Samira and Hauwa (they) do not play outside in the evening

     

    Idan kun lura za ku ga da farko dai idan zaka sauya declarative sentences zuwa negative sentences, dole ne a karo Kalmar ‘do’ ko kuwa ‘does’. Shigo da Kalmar ‘does’ a third person singular yakan sanya a dauke ‘s’ dake tare da verb, amma shigowar Kalmar ‘do’ a first person (singular and plural), da second person (singular and plural) da kuma third person (plural), baya sauya komai ga shi verb din, kamar yadda kuka gani a misalam.

     

    Haka kuma a bias ka’ida na Magana an fi amfani da kalmomin ‘don’t’ da kuma ‘doesn’t’ a maimakon ‘do not’ da ‘does not’ kamar yadda ya zu a misalanmu.

     

    Har’ila yau, wani abu muhimmi shine, idan kuma sentences din tambayoyi ne (a giramance ana kiransu ‘interrogative sentences), wato ba declarative ko negative ba, to anan ma ka’idojin za su dan sauya kadan. Bari na sake maida misalanmu zuwa tambayoyi mu ga yaya za su zama.

     

    First person (singular and plural)

     

    i. First person (subject), ko singular ne (I) ko plural ne (We), baya daukan ‘s’. Misali:

     

     - Do I go to the farm every weekend?

     - Do we celebrate Eid after each Ramadan?

     

    Second person (singular and plural)

     

    ii. Second person (subject), ko singular ne (You) ko plural ne (You), shima baya daukan ‘s’. Misali:

     

     - Do you (Aminu) tell me about your new house every time I come?

     - Do you (Khadijah and Hassana) visit your grandfather during Eid?

     

    Third person (singular and plural)

     

     - Does Musa (He) go to school everyday at 8:00 am?

     - Does Hafsah (She) wash the dishes in the morning?

     - Does My dog (it) catch the cold every winter period?

     

    Third person plural

     

     - Do Samira and Hauwa (they) play outside in the evening?

     

    Idan muka lura, babban abinda ya canza wajen amfani da interrogative sentences shine, da ‘do’ da ‘does’ duk sun koma farkon sentences. Koma bayan hakan, tsarin ya yi dai dai da na declarative sentences a wani wurin, sannan kuma a wani wurin ya yi dai dai da na negative sentences.

     

    A takaice, wadannan sune ka’idijin da suke tattare da sanyaw verb ‘s’, a wurin magana ne ko kuwa a wajen rubutu. Hakika ka’idojin suna da dan yawa, amma idan aka bisu daki-daki da sannu za a warware zare da abawarsu.

     

    Babban hanyan da mai karatu zai bi ya jibance su shine ya yawaita sauraron masu Magana da Turanci, kuma ya yawaita karatun litattafan Turanci. A wajen Magana, kada ya damu da kuskuren da zai yi lokaci-lokaci. Domin yawan sa hankali ga kuskuren da mutum zai yi, yak an hana shi kwarewa. Hakanan, kada hankali ya karkata wajen haddace ka’idojin; an fi so ya karkata wajen amfani da su. Akwai banbanci tsakanin ilimin abu da kuma amfani dashi.

     

    Bayan ga wannan, idan akwai wani mai bukatar karin bayani a wani bangare inda watakila bayanina bai gamsar ba, to sai ya rubuto da tambaya ko reply a kasa, zan kara bayani in Allah ya yarda.

     

    Daga karshen, ina kira ga malumanmu na harsuna, musamman da yake na yi amfani da kaidojin Larabci da na Hausa wajen bayyana ma’anonina, da su yi mini gyara a inda suka ga na yi kuskure.

     

    Allah ya mana jagora.


    This post was edited by Lawan Dalha at April 4, 2019 3:30 PM BST